Electrical Test

Impedance Measurement
Characteristic Impedance is the most fundamental electrical parameter in printed circuit board design. Impedance measurement is typically conducted using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) or a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) in conjunction with suitable probes
Delta L 3.0/4.0, SET2DIL Measurement
Delta L and SET2DIL are Insertion Loss testing methods developed by Intel specifically for the PCB industry, aiming to significantly reduce the difficulty and cost associated with measuring Differential Insertion Loss. These methods utilize standardized test sample designs, making the measurement process more uniform and facilitating rapid measurements with standard test fixtures.
Material A temperature-dependent data
Temperature variation data for Material A" refers to information or measurements collected while subjecting Material A to changes in temperature. This data is likely to include how the material responds to different temperature levels, revealing variations in its properties, behaviors, or characteristics under diverse thermal conditions.
S Parameter under different temperature
Temperature has a significant impact on the loss characteristics of a circuit. In general, as the temperature increases, Insertion Loss and impedance tend to vary, with different materials exhibiting distinct temperature-dependent properties. As power levels increase and signal speeds rise, designers are increasingly concerned about the influence of terminal environmental temperature on signals to prevent signal margins from exceeding expected ranges during actual usage.
"De-embedding is a post-processing technique specifically applied to S-parameters, aiming to eliminate energy losses caused by test fixtures, probes, test points, vias, and other structures from the S-parameters of the device under test.
S Parameter Measurement
S-parameters (Scattering Parameters) are fundamental electrical parameters in circuit design, often represented in the form of 2-port or 4-port configurations. A 4-port S-parameter set includes 16 elements. S-parameters express the ratio of incident energy to received energy, with commonly used metrics being Insertion Loss and Return Loss. Measurements of S-parameters are typically conducted using a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) in conjunction with appropriate probes, connectors, or fixtures.


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